Summary of survey software: Estimands and Statistical Analyses Accomodated

This is a summary of the information included under the heading "Types of estimands and statistical analyses that can be accomodated" for each of the software packages described on these pages. Select the appropriate title for more information on any package.

AM Software

AM Software was developed particularly for analysis of data from educational surveys (such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress). It includes a number of analyses under the rubric of Marginal Maximum Likelihood (MML), based on test theory (Item Response Theory) and used particularly to analyze data in which different subjects complete to different subscales of a test. Procedures in this group include MML Regression, MML Means, MML Table (Ordinal), MML Table (Nominal), MML Composite Means, MML Composite Regression, NALS Table, and NAEP Table.

It also includes more standard analyses including Frequencies, Descriptives, Correlations, (Linear) Regression, Percentiles, Probit and Logit Regression.

Data manipulation capabilities include ability to recode or calculate variables.

New features currently in a Beta-test version (available for download) include:


Bascula computes adjustment weights using auxiliary variables. It incorporates various weighting techniques. If only categorical auxiliary variables are used, the simplest technique is complete poststratification. For incomplete poststratification, Bascula offers a choice between linear weighting (based on the general regression estimator) and multiplicative weighting (based on iterative proportional fitting). Linear weighting can also be applied if one or more of the auxiliary variables is a quantitative variable.

The program can calculate estimates of population totals, means, and ratios.


Totals, means, ratios, proportions for total population and domains; output includes estimated value of the parameter, standard error, coefficient of variation, 95% confidence interval, design effect (DEFF), and number of observations upon which the estimate is based.


Computes sampling errors and derived statistics such as design effects and intra-cluster correlations for ratios and their differences over population subclasses.

Epi Info

Means, proportions, odds ratios, risk ratios, risk differences.
EpiInfo also includes a wide variety of other estimation modules, not necessarily designed for survey data estimation, and there is a related mapping program, EpiMap.

Generalized Estimation System

The focus of this software is on calibration estimation using generalized regression (GREG) estimator theory.



Constructs estimates and standard errors for totals, means, quantiles, ratios, difference of ratios and entries in two-way tables. Weighted regression equations can also be estimated.

Add-on modules calculate logistic regressions and estimation with poststratification.



SAS/STAT Software provides the SURVEYSELECT procedure for sample selection and the SURVEYMEANS and SURVEYREG procedures for producing descriptive statistics and regression estimates, respectively. These three procedures are available in SAS versions 8 and higher. Beginning with SAS 9, SAS/STAT also includes the SURVEYFREQ procedure for computing crosstabulations and tests of association, and the SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure for performing logistic regression. The analysis procedures can accommodate complex survey designs that include stratification, clustering, and unequal weighting.


Note: above information is for SPSS 13.0; SPSS 12 supports a more restricted set of features.


There are about currently about 50 Stata commands for various analyses of survey data, including the following analyses and others:


SUDAAN includes the following statistical procedures:


VPLX calculates summary statistics (means, proportions, and totals for the entire sample or by subclasses) and their standard errors. It can be used to calculate a valid t-test. Arithmetical transformations of the data can be specified in the command language, which means that standard errors can be calculated for arbitrary sums, differences, products, and quotients.


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